Efektivitas Perawatan Mulut Menggunakan Madu Terhadap Risiko Pneumonia Aspirasi Pada Pasien Stroke Yang Mengalami Penurunan Kesadaran Dan Disfagia

Dyah Untari, I made Kariasa, Muhammad Adam

Abstract


Pneumonia aspirasi pada pasien stroke dapat terjadi akibat dari bakteri gram positif maupun gram negatif di rongga mulut yang menyebar ke saluran nafas pasien akibat penurunan kemampuan mulut untuk melawan bakteri. Pemilihan bahan perawatan mulut perlu mempertimbangkan segi efektifitas bahan, keamanan, kenyamanan serta efesiensi biaya. Penelitian kuantitatif ini menggunakan metode kuasi eksperimen dengan desain Pre dan Post test control group design. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mempelajari efektifitas perawatan mulut menggunakan madu dengan risiko pneumonia aspirasi pada pasien stroke yang mengalami penurunan kesadaran dan disfagia. Pada desain ini 46 responden dibagi menjadi 23 responden kelompok intervensi dengan perawatan mulut menggunakan madu dan 23 responden menjadi kelompok control yang mendapatkan perawatan mulut dengan chlorhexidine 0,2%. Perawatan mulut dilakukan dilakukan oleh perawat sebanyak dua kali sehari pada pagi dan sore hari selama 30 menit dalam waktu 3 hari berurutan. Hasil: terdapat hubungan signifikan perawatan mulut menggunakan madu dengan risiko pneumonia aspirasi pada pasien stroke yang mengalami penurunan kesadaran dan disfagia (p.0,000:α.0,05). Risiko pneumonia aspirasi lebih rendah sebesar 2,522 dengan perawatan mulut menggunakan madu dibandingkan menggunakan Clorhexidine 0,2%. Simpulan: Perawatan mulut menggunakan madu efektif mencegah peningkatan risiko pneumonia aspirasi pada pasein stroke yang mengalami penurunan kesadaran dan disfagia. Saran: Perawatan mulut dengan madu dapat dijadikan bahan untuk perawatan mulut terutama dalam pemilihan agen antiseptik karena terbukti pada penelitian ini madu dapat mempertahankan bahkan menurunkan risiko pneumonia aspirasi pada pasien stroke dengan penurunan kesadaran dan disfagia. Penelitian ini dapat menjadi rujukan untuk penelitian berikutnya.

Kata Kunci: Chlorhexidine 0,2%, Madu, Perawatan Mulut, Stroke

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References


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DOI: https://doi.org/10.37430/jen.v2i1.9

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